A reading disorder is a condition in which a sufferer displays difficulty reading resulting primarily from neurological factors. Developmental Dyslexia, Alexia (acquired dyslexia), and Hyperlexia.
The disorder can be classified by how you develop it.Developmental dyslexia is a condition you are born with, Acquired dyslexia can result from brain trauma or diseases such as Alzheimer’s,There are man subtypes of dyslexia. These are classified according to whether the specific processing problem is related to letters, sounds, word recognition, spelling etc..
Around 60%-80% of individuals diagnosed with Reading disorder were males. Reading disorders occur when a person has trouble with any part of the reading process. Reading and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia. These disorders are present from a young age and usually result from specific differences in the way the brain processes language.
There are many different symptoms and types of reading disorders, and not everyone with a reading disorder has every symptom. People with reading disorders may have problems recognizing words that they already know and may also be poor spellers. Other symptoms may include the following:
- Trouble with handwriting
- Difficulty reading quickly
- Problems reading with correct expression
- Problems understanding the written word
specific types of reading disorders include:
- Word decoding. People who have difficulty sounding out written words; matching the letters to sounds to be able to read a word.
- Lack of fluency. People who lack fluency have difficulty reading quickly, accurately, and with proper expression (if reading aloud).
- Poor reading comprehension. People with poor reading comprehension have trouble understanding what they read
Common characteristics of children with reading disorder include:
- difficulty identifying single words
- problems understanding the sounds in words, sound order, or rhymes
- problems with spelling
- transposing letters in words
- omitting or substituting words
- poor reading comprehension
- slow reading speed (oral or silent)
Diagnostic criteria for 315.00 Reading Disorder as per DSM IV-TR
The essential feature of a Reading disorder is the reading achievement (reading accuracy,speed, or comprehension as measured by individually administered standardized tests) that fall substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age,measured intelligence, and age appropriate education ( Criterion A). the disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that requires reading skills (Criterion B),If a sensory deficit is present, the reading difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with it(Criterion C).If a general medical (eg neurological)condition or sensory deficit is present one should code the condition on Axis III
Treatment approaches vary from visual stimulation to diets to special enhanced reading instruction. However, it is generally agreed that customized education is the only successful remedy. Each child learns at a different pace, so it is important to customize treatment. Your child may need one-on-one tutoring, targeted supplemental activities, or additional help in a class that moves at a slower pace. Treating a reading disorder may require the help of a reading specialist, teachers, a psychologist, and parents.